February 21, 2020

When puppies play with each other, they use their mouths.  Any feedback they get teaches them to inhibit their bite pressure.  (Acquired Bite Inhibition). This puppy play behaviour translates to your hands and often puppies like to mouth hands during play or when being petted.  Giving your pup an alternative behaviour is more successful than trying to suppress it as puppies are highly motivated to exhibit this biting behaviour.  So, whenever your pup tries to gnaw on your arm or hand redirect the biting to something like an acceptable chew toy.


Sometimes puppies are uncomfortable with being petted and will object by biting your hand.  Redirect your puppy’s chewing onto acceptable objects by offering her a chew toy whenever you pet her.  This will also desensitize her to being handled and petted.  This will not only help your puppy learn that people and petting are wonderful but will also keep her mouth busy while she’s being petted.  Try and keep the petting and handling sessions brief as sustained petting and handling might get her too excited and this is when she will try and nip and bite.

If after all this she still prefers chewing at your hands, then you can teach her that this behaviour results in all interaction with her stopping.  Interrupt the biting by yelling a word like “Ouch” and then stop interacting with her and even leave the room.  You’ll be teaching her that the consequence of nipping and biting is that you leave her.  Wait a few seconds and resume playing with her or petting her.

These methods will only work if you are consistent and that every time she bites with unacceptable pressure there is ALWAYS a consequence.


I’ve heard some people say that tapping the pup on the nose or holding her mouth closed will stop the biting, but this type of reaction from you will result in some fallout, which is always the case with punishment.  Punishment might result in the following consequences which will not make your bonding and relationship with your pup any easier:

  • The pup might stop wanting to interact with you altogether
  • The pup might start shying away from hands
  • She might even become more aroused and start biting harder

More effective than punishment is always interruption and redirection.


Behavioural Inhibition

February 28, 2017

One of the most enjoyable things about training with positive reinforcement is that as soon as the dogs sense that a training session is about to start, a kind of buzz happens.  They can be fast asleep or lolling about in the sun, or just sitting gazing out at the garden, but as soon as they hear me getting my gear together (and they hear it – no matter how quiet I am), all of them are standing at the door, tails wagging and eyes bright.  This is because they just love training – training is not a chore it is a game we play together.  It gives them an opportunity to have a conversation with their trainer, to problem solve, to earn reinforcement.

Using positive reinforcement with a bridging stimulus has another advantage.  It gives the dog freedom to experiment with behaviours.  This is a trait that is not present in any dog that shows signs of Behavioural Inhibition.  There is nothing sadder than a dog that is so anxious about doing the wrong thing that it ends up doing as little as possible.  It becomes so inhibited that teaching it anything outside its experience is really difficult and time-consuming.

Some features of a behaviourally inhibited or shut-down dog would be a resistance to trying anything new or foreign to its experience.  A 14 week old puppy that has been positively trained from the get-go will have absolutely no problem rapidly offering behaviours such as climbing on to a raised object, offering position changes voluntarily, readily taking food rewards, making eye contact and so on.  The inhibited dog will, on the other hand, even when lured on to a raised object, will, after many, many sessions be very hesitant to try it and will often start the session simply sitting or standing and doing as little as possible.  This same dog will take many, many sessions of luring the down before offering the position, and even then will lower itself cautiously without making eye contact as though not sure what the consequences will be.

It is possible to make things better for these sad little dogs.

  • Identify the situation that tends to activate behavioural inhibition and avoid that situation. Change the environment.  If the dog is unhappy in the area that you train, move somewhere else where the dog is more comfortable.
  • Identify anything that the dog will participate in willingly. And gradually use this participation to ease the dog into working more confidently towards goals that you have set.
  • Observe the dog closely and avoid anything that causes the dog to shut down. Once the dog becomes more confident these things can gradually be reintroduced.

Exercise LOTS of patience.  Even a hint of frustration or irritation will lead to a shut-down dog.  End the session immediately you start becoming frustrated.

Old Dogs CAN learn new tricks

September 12, 2013


The old saying that “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks” is just that – an old saying.  Older dogs are perfectly capable of learning.  Don’t think that because you’ve just adopted an old dog that his age makes him unable to learn basic obedience cues such as “Sit”, “Down” and “Come”.  He could even learn some party tricks.

There are a number of factors that influence how much and what your senior citizen can learn.  These are:

  • Your dog’s training and behaviour history.
  • Your dog’s physical condition.
  • Your commitment and experience as a trainer.
  • What methods you are using to train him
  • Mental conditions that may limit his cognitive abilities.

Your dog’s training and behaviour history:

If your dog has been trained from an early age and enjoys the training, he can certainly benefit from ongoing training – learning new skills and brushing up on known skills.  Exercising his brain will keep him more alert than a dog who is not challenged mentally.

If your dog has had no training apart from house training teaching him new skills is more of a challenge but if you go about it in a gentle and positive manner he is just as capable of learning as a younger dog.

Your dog’s physical condition:

Elderly dogs sometimes suffer from arthritis, hip dysplasia and general aches and pains that accompany old age so care must be taken that the training does not tax your dog beyond what his body can handle.

Your consistency and patience as a trainer:

The more consistent and patient you are, particularly when teaching an old dog that has had no training in his youth, the better results you will get.  Stick to positive methods, be aware of your timing when rewarding behaviour that you want and realise that it takes a while and a lot of patience on your part to clear the cobwebs out of a disused attic.  There is nothing more rewarding than seeing the light bulb moment when your dog begins to understand what you want.

Training Methods:

Dogs trained with aversive methods tend to shut down and resist training whereas dogs that are trained with positive methods are usually keen to carry on the “training” game their whole lives.  There is overwhelming anecdotal evidence that dogs trained with positive methods are quite willing to keep on learning – while those trained with physical and/or verbal punishment are more likely to shut down and less willing to offer new behaviours.

Cognitive Ability in Senior Dogs:

Canine Cognitive Disorder is a very real phenomenon.  Clinical signs include disorientation,  increased sleep (especially during the day), altered interactions with family members, loss of housetraining, decreased ability to recognize familiar people and surroundings and decreased hearing, to name a few of the more common signs.

Gypsy - now a very active 12 year-old.  My heart dog.

Gypsy – now a very active 12 year-old. My heart dog.

Dogs’ personalities don’t change much after puppyhood and adolescence.  Anxious or fearful dogs tend to remain anxious or fearful although with careful treatment they can be helped to be less so.  But, what you can do is teach your old dog how to behave in a certain situation.

First steps in teaching your dog new behaviours:

First, reward the dog for performing a desired behavior when that behavior occurs naturally. For example, give your dog a food treat for sitting or lying down.  These behaviours occur naturally throughout the day so carry some of your dog’s daily ration around with you in your pocket so that you can “capture” these behaviours whenever they occur.  If your dog’s normal dry food is not attractive enough to be worth doing “stuff” for, then select rewards that are more appealing such as small blocks of cheese, or pieces of Vienna sausages.  Eventually your dog will start “offering” these behaviours in the hope that his reward will be forthcoming.

Your next step would be to start teaching your dog the cue that is associated with the behaviour that he is offering.  As he begins offering the sit or the down give him the cue “Sit” or “Down”.  He will soon realise that when he hears either of these words and he responds with the relevant behaviour, a treat will be forthcoming.

Even canine senior citizens will learn fairly rapidly using the above technique.  Obedient responses to cues are valuable as a means of increasing mutual understanding between owner and dog.  The very act of spending time with your dog, plus the sense of accomplishment and communication that training brings, is well worth the effort and improves the quality of both the owner’s and the pet’s life.

If you make sure that your aging dog is always learning, always occupied and always has something new to think about, he will probably be more likely to stay bright, alert and mentally active for a long time, perhaps well into old age.

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